Alpaca vs Merino Wool: What Are the Differences?

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Alpaca vs Merino Wool: What Are the Differences?

When discussing the world of luxurious natural fibers, two names often come to the forefront: alpaca and merino wool. Both of these fibers are known for their superior qualities and soft feel, but each has its own unique characteristics that set it apart from the other. 

In this article, we will compare alpaca and merino wool, examining their differences and similarities to help you make an informed decision when selecting the perfect material for your clothing and accessories.

Alpaca wool originates from the coat of the alpaca, while merino wool comes from the wool of merino sheep, predominantly bred in Australia and New Zealand. 

Alpaca fibers tend to be silkier and smoother than merino, making garments made from alpaca wool more comfortable to wear against the skin. On the other hand, merino wool excels in its strength and durability, making it ideal for long-lasting apparel

As we delve deeper into the world of alpaca and merino wool, we will explore other factors such as their warmth, sustainability, and environmental impact.

Basic Properties of Alpaca and Merino Wool

brown baby alpaca
Baby alpaca
one merino sheep
Merino sheep

Origins of Alpaca and Merino Wool

Alpaca wool originates from the alpaca, a camel-like animal native to South America, specifically the Andean region that covers parts of Peru, Bolivia, and northern Chile. 

There are two types of alpaca: the Huacaya alpaca, which produces a more voluminous and fluffy fleece, and the Suri alpaca, known for its long, lustrous locks of fiber. These fibers are then processed and turned into luxuriously soft fabric.

On the other hand, Merino wool comes from Merino sheep, which are native to Spain but have also been successfully bred in other countries like Australia and New Zealand. The Merino sheep is particularly famous for its fine, soft wool, which is highly sought after for its exceptional warmth and breathability.

Fiber Structure and Composition

The properties of alpaca and merino wool fibers are quite distinct, resulting in unique characteristics that set the fabrics apart. Alpaca fibers have a hollow core, allowing them to provide excellent insulation as they trap air within the fiber. 

This results in a warm, lightweight fabric that is also moisture-wicking, making it an ideal choice for colder seasons and various outdoor activities.

In contrast, merino wool fibers have a solid core structure, but the fibers themselves are crimped and extremely fine. This allows for greater flexibility and elasticity, providing excellent comfort and durability. Merino wool is highly breathable and has natural moisture-wicking properties, making it a popular choice for activewear.

One key difference between alpaca and merino wool is the presence of lanolin in sheep wool. Lanolin, a natural oil found in sheep wool, provides a degree of water resistance and can help keep fabrics clean. 

However, it may cause irritation for some individuals with sensitive skin. Alpaca fibers do not contain lanolin, making them a suitable option for those with sensitivities.

New Zealand merino wool
New Zealand merino wool

In terms of softness, alpaca fleece is often considered softer than Merino wool due to factors beyond the micron measurements of the fibers. While Merino wool has smaller micron measurements than alpaca, additional factors (such as the fiber’s overall structure and composition) can contribute to a fabric’s softness.

In summary:


  • Origin: South America (Peru, Bolivia, and northern Chile)
  • Types: Huacaya and Suri
  • Hollow core fibers for insulation and lightweight fabric
  • Moisture-wicking properties
  • Soft, hypoallergenic (no lanolin)


  • Origin: Spain (also bred in Australia and New Zealand)
  • Solid core, fine crimped fibers for flexibility and elasticity
  • Breathable and moisture-wicking
  • Softer than regular sheep wool, but less soft than alpaca
  • Contains lanolin (possible irritant for sensitive skin)

Comfort and Performance Factors

Softness and Itching

Alpaca wool is known for its exceptional softness due to its smooth and consistent fiber texture. This makes it more comfortable for wearing against the skin. On the other hand, merino wool can sometimes feel prickly. 

Both fabrics are incredibly soft, but alpaca has an edge in terms of softness. It is also hypoallergenic and less likely to cause skin irritation and itchiness compared to merino wool, as alpaca fibers have fewer scales than wool fibers.

Warmth and Insulation

gray variegated merino sheep wool
Gray variegated Merino sheep wool

Both alpaca and merino wool provide excellent warmth and insulation. Alpaca wool has microscopic air pockets that help trap and retain heat, making it warmer than merino wool. 

This makes alpaca wool suitable for socks, gloves, beanies, and other cold-weather accessories. Merino wool is also warm and is commonly used for base layers and outdoor clothing, but it is not as warm as alpaca wool.

Breathability and Moisture Wicking

In terms of breathability and moisture management, both alpaca and merino wool excel. They are both capable of wicking moisture away from the skin, making them suitable for activewear and outdoor clothing. 

Alpaca wool is water-repellent, while merino wool has good water repellency. 

Durability and Tensile Strength

Although both alpaca and merino wool are considered durable, alpaca wool has a higher tensile strength compared to merino wool. This means alpaca fibers are stronger and less prone to breakage. 

Alpaca wool requires less processing to achieve the same fiber quality, making it more sustainable and cost-effective in the long run. It is essential to note, though, that alpaca wool products can be more expensive than merino wool products.

Elasticity and Stretch

Merino wool is known for its fine crimp, which results in high elasticity and stretch. This is a desirable trait in items like base layers, activewear, and socks as it provides comfort and flexibility. 

Alpaca wool, on the other hand, has less elasticity and stretch than merino wool but still has ample stretch for most applications. Both wools are suitable for the production of clothing and accessories.

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Sustainability and Environmental Impact

Biodegradability and Recycling Practices

Alpaca wool is considered more environmentally friendly compared to merino wool due to its biodegradability and recycling practices. 

Merino wool is often blended with synthetic fabrics, like polyester, which can release microplastics, reduce breathability, and have negative effects on the environment. 

The superwashing process used for merino wool involves a chemical acid bath, releasing toxins into the environment during manufacturing.

Sourcing and Manufacturing Process

The sourcing and manufacturing process of alpaca and merino wool differ significantly. Alpaca wool is predominantly sourced from alpaca farms in South America, while most merino wool comes from countries like New Zealand and Australia

The difference between alpaca and merino wool production lies in their farming practices.

Alpaca farming has less impact on the environment due to its sustainable nature, with alpacas typically farmed on a smaller scale. 

alpaca wool production in Peru
Alpaca wool production in Peru

They are grass-fed, require less water, and produce less methane, relative to sheep farming involved in merino wool production. 

Merino wool, on the other hand, is mass-produced, which increases the chances of animal maltreatment, pollution, and the use of energy-intensive processes like scouring. 

Efforts have been made to increase sustainable merino wool production, but the environmental impact remains higher compared to alpaca wool.

Uses and Types of Products

When it comes to alpaca and merino wool, both fibers have various applications in different products. This section will focus on their uses in clothing and activewear, as well as blankets and home accessories.

Clothing and Activewear

Alpaca and merino wool are both popular choices for clothing and activewear, particularly in cold-weather garments. 

Both fibers are known for their softness, but alpaca is softer than merino wool, making it a superior choice for people with sensitive skin or those who experience itching from other types of wool. The softness is due to the difference in the length of the scales of the fibers, with alpaca having shorter scales.

Blankets and Home Accessories

Alpaca blankets, due to their hollow fibers, are known to provide superior insulation compared to merino wool blankets. This makes alpaca blankets a more suitable choice for colder temperatures.

Alpaca wool is also widely used in home accessories such as decorative pillowcases, throws, and rugs, thanks to its luxurious texture and unique appearance. Merino wool, with its smaller fiber diameter, is also utilized in various home accessories for its lightweight warmth and softness.

In terms of cost, alpaca wool products tend to have a higher price point than menino wool products. However, the investment in this luxurious fiber can be rewarding, providing long-lasting comfort and style in a myriad of products.

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Paul Brown is the founder and chief editor at We are a family-owned and operated farm that has been raising and caring for animals for generations. Our farm is located in Nebraska, we believe that the best animal products come from the happiest, healthiest animals, and that’s why we are dedicated to ethical and sustainable farming practices that prioritize the well-being of our animals.